Birds of Eden the largest free flight bird aviary in the world, Plettenberg Bay Garden Route Adventures South Africa
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Ticker (aka Lister):

A person whose prime focus in birding is the compilation of his lifelist, generally in a competitive way. Has very little interest in spending more than a few moments with the bird, and once seen, shows little desire to see the bird ever again.


A birder in all the good sense of the term during normal times, but responds with frenzied activity to news of rarities in his region, and will spend large amounts of money and travel long distances at short notice in order to see a rarity or new bird. Consequently is the subject of scorn from certain birdwatchers who find this eagerness to see new birds distasteful. Is often accused (and sometimes guilty) of contravening the Code of Ethics in his desire to see a new bird. Due to his extra focus on rare species, it is the twitcher who very often discovers new or rare species in the region.


The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" of virility,plural testes) is the male gonad in animals. Like the ovaries to which they are homologous, testes are components of both the reproductive system and the endocrine system. The primary functions of the testes are to produce sperm (spermatogenesis) and to produce androgens, primarily testosterone.

Both functions of the testicle are influenced by gonadotropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary. Luteinizing hormone (LH) results in testosterone release. The presence of both testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is needed to support spermatogenesis.


Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group and is found in mammals, reptiles, birds, and other vertebrates. In mammals, testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair. In addition, testosterone is essential for health and well-being as well as the prevention of osteoporosis. 

On average, an adult human male body produces about 7-8 times more testosterone than an adult human female body , but females are more sensitive to the hormone.
Testosterone is observed in most vertebrates. Fish make a slightly different form called 11-ketotestosterone. Its counterpart in insects is ecdysone. These ubiquitous steroids suggest that sex hormones have an ancient evolutionary history.


Refers to the system that classifies all worldwide species including plants, animals and microorganisms. 


(Plural of taxon) In the formal system of scientifically classifying organisms according to their presumed evolutionary relationships, taxa are the various groups of organisms.


Small, squirrel-like monkeys of South America. They live in trees, are very social, and mainly eat insects and fruit.


(Family: Tinamidae) Medium-sized, dumpy birds, which spend most of their time on the ground, preferring to run rather than fly. They live in many habitats, feeding on fruit and seeds. The 46 species are all found in Latin America.


(Family: Turdidae) Medium-sized (about 20 centimeters long) songbirds, found worldwide. Thrushes are usually brown with speckles of other colors.

Totem-tree Marking

the repeated preferential scent-marking of particular trees


also: teratogenic causing a disruption in normal development and leading to visible malformation of an organism

Toilet Claw

a claw found on the second toe that functions in grooming


also: taxonomic describing, naming, and grouping organisms, including plants, animals, and microorganisms


the maintenance of a particular body temperature regardless of changes in the environment


Terrestrial means relating to the land. Terrestrial animals are adapted to living on the land most of the time (as opposed to living in the water or in trees). Deer, horses, and people are examples of terrestrial animals.

Temperate Rainforests

Temperate rainforests are very wet, ancient forests that rarely freeze or get very hot. Most of the world's temperate rainforests are in the Pacific Northwest of the USA.


Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms into groups by structure, origin, common ancestor, etc.

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